How Redlining Affects Education in America
Redlining is the practice of discriminating against certain neighborhoods or groups of people based on race or ethnicity. And while it’s been outlawed for decades, its effects are still very much felt today – especially when it comes to education.
In this blog post, we’ll take a look at how redlining has affected education in America, and what can be done to mitigate its effects.
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What is redlining?
Redlining is the practice of denying or escalating the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, investment, and even education, to certain areas based on the racial or ethnic makeup of those areas. In response to the Fair Housing Act of 1968, which made it illegal to deny housing based on race, lenders began using a new tactic to continue discriminating against black and brown homebuyers: they would assess the risk of lending in a given neighborhood by coloring it red on a map.
The legacy of redlining continues to have an impact on education in America today. Because property values in neighborhoods that have been redlined are typically lower than in other areas, these neighborhoods have less tax revenue to dedicate to their schools. As a result, redlined schools tend to be underfunded and understaffed, with inadequate resources and facilities. This has a direct impact on students’ ability to learn: Studies have shown that students who attend high-poverty schools are more likely to drop out of school and less likely to go on to college than their peers in wealthier schools.
In addition, redlining has contributed to segregation in America’s public schools. Neighborhoods that have been redlined are often majority-minority, while nearby neighborhoods that were not redlined are often majority-white. As a result, the public schools in these areas are also segregated: according to a 2017 report from The Century Foundation, 75 percent of black students and 74 percent of Latino students attend majority-minority schools. These segregated schools tend to be underresourced and overcrowded, with higher teacher turnover rates and fewer Advanced Placement courses than predominantly white schools.
The effects of redlining are intergenerational: because segregated minority schools are often located in neighborhoods with high rates of poverty, they perpetuate the cycle of poverty from one generation to the next. In order for America’s public schools to provide an equitable education for all students, we must first address the legacy of redlining.
History of redlining in America
The term “redlining” was coined in the 1930s by John McKnight, a sociologist at the University of Chicago. He was studying maps that insurance companies used to determine which areas were too risky to insure. These maps were almost entirely red, hence the term “redlining.”
The Home Owners’ Loan Corporation
The Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) was a New Deal agency established in 1933 by the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration. The HOLC’s primary purpose was to refinance home mortgages that were in danger of foreclosure during the Great Depression. It also developed maps that rated neighborhoods according to their desirability for banking purposes, with “A” neighborhoods being the most desirable and “D” neighborhoods being the least desirable. These maps were then used by banks and other lenders to deny or limit funding to neighborhoods that were deemed too risky.
Redlining had a significant impact on education in America. Families who were denied home loans because of redlining often could not afford to live in areas with good schools, and children in these areas often attended lower-quality schools as a result. Redlining also meant that these families were less likely to be able to move to better neighborhoods, even if they could afford it, because they would be unable to get a loan for a home in a nicer area.
The effects of redlining are still felt today. Some studies have shown that children who grow up in areas that were formerly redlined are more likely to drop out of school and less likely to attend college than their peers from more affluent areas. Redlining has also been linked to higher rates of poverty and crime in former redlined areas.
The Fair Housing Act of 1968
In 1968, the Fair Housing Act was passed as part of the Civil Rights Act. The Fair Housing Act made it illegal to discriminate in the sale, rental, or financing of housing on the basis of race, creed, color, religion or national origin. While this law was a huge step forward in protecting the rights of minorities, it did not address the issue of housing segregation that had been created by decades of redlining.
How does redlining affect education?
Redlining is the discriminatory practice of denying or limiting financial services, including education, to certain neighborhoods or communities, usually because of racial or ethnic demographics. Studies have shown that redlining negatively affects education in a number of ways. In this section, we’ll explore how redlining affects education in America.
Schools located in predominately black neighborhoods receive, on average, $2300 less per student than schools in white neighborhoods. This funding disparity exists because property taxes—the primary source of revenue for public schools—are based on home values. And home values are largely determined by historical redlining maps.
Redlining is the systematic denial of financial services—including home loans, insurance, and small business loans—to people who live in certain areas based on the racial or ethnic composition of those areas. The practice was widespread in the United States until it was outlawed by the Fair Housing Act of 1968. However, the effects of redlining continue to this day.
Because redlining lowered property values in black neighborhoods, those neighborhoods have been unable to generate the same level of tax revenue as white neighborhoods. This has led to a vicious cycle: lower property values mean lower tax revenue, which means fewer resources for schools, which leads to lower test scores and graduation rates, which further reinforces the perception that these neighborhoods are not worth investing in.
The resulting lack of resources creates a number of challenges for educators working in these schools. They often have larger class sizes and fewer resources (such as books and technology) than their counterparts in more affluent districts. They also tend to have a higher percentage of students with special needs and English language learners. These challenges make it difficult for teachers to provide their students with a high-quality education.
There is some hope that the effects of redlining can be mitigated through targeted investment in these communities. But until we address the root causes of this inequity, our educational system will continue to be unfair and unequal.
Desegregation of schools in the United States progressed slowly following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision. In some areas, schools remained segregated for decades after the court order. A significant factor that impeded desegregation was housing segregation, or “redlining.”
“Redlining” is a term that was coined in the 1930s by sociologist and historian Charles Abrams. He used red lines to show on a map where black people were concentrated in cities. He also showed that these areas were often deprived of investment, resulting in substandard housing and fewer job opportunities. These conditions still exist today in many cities across America.
The effects of redlining and school segregation are still being felt today. A recent study found that black students who attend schools that are predominantly white score significantly higher on standardized tests than black students who attend schools that are predominantly black. The study also found that the achievement gap between black and white students is larger in states with a history of housing segregation.
Redlining and school segregation have had a profound and lasting impact on education in America. They have contributed to the achievement gap between black and white students, and they have kept many black students from attending high-performing schools. The effects of these two policies will continue to be felt for generations to come.
The effects of redlining on education are both direct and indirect. One of the most direct impacts is the quality of teachers in a given school. In areas that have been historically redlined, schools often have a harder time attracting and retaining high-quality teachers. This is due in part to lower salaries and fewer resources, but it is also due to the overall perception of redlined communities.
Redlined communities are often viewed as dangerous or undesirable, which can make it difficult for teachers to find housing or feel safe in their neighborhoods. This can lead to a higher turnover rate among teachers, which in turn can negatively impact student learning. In addition, students in redlined communities are more likely to attend schools that are racially and socioeconomically segregated.
This segregation can further exacerbate the effects of redlining, as students in segregated schools often have less access to resources and experienced educators. As a result, they may struggle more academically and be less likely to graduate from high school or go on to college. The cycle of poverty and racism that is perpetuated by redlining thus affects education at every level.
Solutions to address the education effects of redlining
Redlining is the practice of refusing to provide services, investment, or credit to people based on their race or ethnicity. The effects of redlining are still felt today in many American neighborhoods, particularly when it comes to education. In this article, we’ll discuss some solutions to address the education effects of redlining.
targeted school funding
Research suggests that targeted school funding – which concentrates resources in schools serving low-income students of color – is a promising strategy for addressing the education effects of redlining. A recent review of the evidence by the National Education Policy Center found that targeted school funding interventions have the potential to improve a range of outcomes for disadvantaged students, including test scores, graduation rates, and college enrollment.
Targeted school funding interventions can take many forms, but all share the goal of providing additional resources to schools serving high-need students. For example, states and districts can target their existing school funding formulas to provide extra resources to schools serving high-need students, or they can create new funding streams that are specifically designed to support these schools. In some cases, targeted school funding interventions are paired with other supports, such as wraparound services or personnel reforms, in order to magnify their impact.
There is growing evidence that targeted school funding interventions can make a difference for disadvantaged students. A 2016 study from the Equity and Excellence Commission found that districts that employed targeted reforms saw larger test score gains for low-income students and students of color than districts that did not make these changes. Another study, from 2017, found that a targeted school funding intervention in New Jersey led to improved test scores and graduation rates for low-income students.
The evidence on targeted school funding suggests that this is a promising strategy for addressing the education effects of redlining. By directing additional resources to schools serving high-need students, we can help level the playing field and ensure that all students have an opportunity to succeed.
school integration programs
School integration programs refer to any type of initiative or policy implemented with the goal of reducing racial and/or socioeconomic disparities among students in terms of educational opportunities and outcomes. Although there is no one-size-fits-all model for school integration, these programs typically involve some combination of voluntary student transfers, changes to school zoning boundaries, and/or Magnet school programs.
There is a growing body of research indicating that school integration can lead to a variety of positive outcomes for students, including improved academic achievement, increased college enrollment and graduation rates, reduced rates of truancy and suspension, and increased social and emotional skills. In addition, school integration has been shown to lead to reduced levels of racial segregation and prejudice among both students and adults.
Despite the clear potential benefits of school integration programs, a number of challenges have prevented many districts from successfully implementing these initiatives. These challenges include resistance from families who do not want to send their children to schools outside of their neighborhood or community, logistical difficulties in transporting students to different schools, and a lack of resources to adequately fund these programs. In addition, some research has suggested that well-intentioned school integration initiatives can unintentionally perpetuate inequalities if they are not carefully designed and implemented.
teacher development and support programs
An effective teacher development and support program is critical to addressing the education effects of redlining. Such programs can help ensure that all teachers have the knowledge and skills they need to provide high-quality instruction to all students, regardless of their background or zip code.
A well-designed teacher development and support program should include:
– Professional development opportunities that are tailored to the specific needs of teachers in redlined communities
– Support for new and experienced teachers, including mentorship, coaching, and peer learning opportunities
– Funding for resources, such as books, classroom materials, and technology